Applied Earth Sciences

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Applied Earth sciences dealing with current practical applications beneficial to society. These include the study of fossil fuels (oil, natural gas, and coal); oil reservoirs; mineral deposits; geothermal energy for electricity and heating; the structure and composition of bedrock for the location of bridges, nuclear reactors, roads, dams, and skyscrapers and other buildings; hazards involving rock and mud avalanches, volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, and the collapse of tunnels; and coastal, cliff, and soil erosion.

Government Policies Raw Materials The EU is self-sufficient in construction minerals, in particular aggregates, and is a major world producer of gypsum and natural stone. The availability of aggregates from regional and local sources is essential for economic development, in view of logistical constraints and transport costs. The EU is also the world’s largest or second largest producer of certain industrial minerals, though it remains a net importer of most of them (annex 2, table 1). However, the EU is highly dependent on imports of metallic minerals, as its domestic production is limited to about 3% of world production (Annex 2, figure 1 and table 2). EU is a major importer of “high-tech” metals such as cobalt, platinum, rare earths, and titanium.

High Tech Materials, Minerals

Rare Earth Elements (Scandium, Yttrium, and lanthanides). Dysprosium, terbium indium are essential to alloys used in advanced technology,e.g. flat screens, batteries in hybrid and electric vehicles, and aircraft turbines.

China enjoys a virtual monopoly on the Rare Earth metals.

Fossil Fuels The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Nations is “made up of eleven developing nations, whose economies rely on oil export revenues. One of OPEC’s primary missions is to achieve stable oil prices, which are fair and reasonable for producers and consumers.” The Cambridge Research Energy Associates is an “leading advisor to international energy companies, governments, financial institutions, and technology providers.” It prides itself on the delivery of independent energy market analysis and strategy.

Oil Depletion Problem Ivan Illich Energy Crisis ; is a “clearinghouse for current information regarding the peak in global energy supply.” They publish innovations and solutions, as well as current oil and gas production data and important announcements from international organizations. ; A plan for a sensible future ; The Oil Drum is a discussion forum on the topic of peak oil. The main contributors all believe that as the cheap supply of oil dries up, there will be massive changes to our society: this is a major theme of their posts ; The Association for the Study of Peak Oil and Gas is a central node with links to ASPO websites for Australia, France, Ireland, the USA and other countries. It also contains extensive news articles ; ; I like this site Dystopian ; ; The Institute for the Analysis of Global Security considers itself a public educational organization. Focusing on energy security, the Institute tries to engage the public and alert them to the impact that energy dependency has on the economy and security ; The Post Carbon Institute’s mission is “to assist communities in the effort to relocalize and adapt to an energy constrained world.” The website is also linked to the oil depletion protocol website ; The Oil Depletion Analysis Centre is a British non-government organization which hopes to increase public awareness of the world’s oil-depletion problem. They achieve their goals through facilitating information exchange and monitoring developments in the depletion of oil ; Global Oil Watch is a news and resource site relating to oil and energy. The site also contains an ‘oil and gas glossary’, and a relevant section of downloadable research materials ;


Water & Sanitation.

Pågående frågor och utmaningar : Integrerad och gränsöverskridande vattenresurshantering, öka deltagande i beslut av de som utnyttjar vatten, minska korruption i vattenresurshanteringen.

World Water Day 22 March each year to highight the importance of water management. ; Fresh water regions ; Sandra Postel promoting sustainable use of water resources, with 1999 book Pillars of Sand : 'Impossible to talk about the history of human civilisation without talking about water.' ; ; ; Stockholm International Water Institute Marseilles-based organises World Water Forums in Mexico, Holland, Japan, Morocco, Istanbul (2009). The council was founded to exchange ideas about conservation and the development of water resources. Group members include the World Bank, the International Committee of the Red Cross and the US Corps of Engineers ; Pacific Institute, Publishes yearly book on the state of water resources in the world ;

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