Chemistry

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chemistry is defined as the study of the composition and properties of elements and compounds, the structure of their molecules, and the chemical reactions that they undergo.

Main areas Analytical Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry, Organic Chemistry, Physical Chemistry (studies chemical processes, including Electrochemistry), Industrial Chemistry, Biochemistry.

Newer areas Polymer Chemistry, Environmental Chemistry, Medicinal Chemistry. And newer still : Pesticide Chemistry, Forensic Chemistry, and Computer Chemistry.

For cross between inorganic and organic activities : Bioinorganic Chemistry (study the role of metals in biological systems), Organomettalic Chemistry (the use of inorganic compounds together with carbon-rich ones in e.g. certain catalysators.

General

http://www.wolffund.org.il/cat.asp?id=15&cat_title=CHEMISTRY Price for cutting edge developments ; http://www.periodicvideos.com/ le tableau périodique des éléments avec des séquences vidéo ;

http://www.cas.org/ CAS, a leader in chemical information, and a division of the American Chemical Society, provides the most comprehensive databases of disclosed research in chemistry and related sciences, including the world's largest collection of substance information, the CAS REGISTRY.

Electrochemistry

http://www.lanl.gov/news/1663/docs/1663_mar09.pdf Look at the need to develop electrical energy storage devices to store renewable energies such as solar and wind. What holds back their usage now is the feeble battery capacity.

the energy density of a lithium-ion battery is 0.15 kilowatt-hours per kilogram (kWh/kg). The equivalent figure for petrol is 12.5kWh/kg, and although only 30% of this energy is captured, the energy density is still 3.7kWh/kg, or 25 times as much as a battery.

Nanotechnology can help develop more efficient batteries. During electrolysis, electric fields develop in nanometer-size regions of the electrode surface—regions that contain less than a few hundred atoms—that have strengths on the order of 10 billion volts per meter. That’s about 10,000 times the electric field in a lighting bolt. We’re talking enormous energies, enormous electric fields. But after 250 years of electrochemisty, we still don’t know exactly what these nanoscale fields look like or how they behave.

Liquid batteries antimony on the bottom, an electrolyte such as sodium sulfide in the middle, and magnesium at the top in natural layers can add capacity to batteries and make solar energy stored for night use. (2009) As power flows into the battery, magnesium and antimony metal are generated from magnesium antimonide dissolved in the electrolyte. When the cell discharges, the metals of the two electrodes dissolve to again form magnesium antimonide, which dissolves in the electrolyte, causing the electrolyte to grow larger and the electrodes to shrink. Sadoway envisions wiring together large cells to form enormous battery packs. One big enough to meet the peak electricity demand in New York City--about 13,000 megawatts--would fill nearly 60,000 square meters.

Lithium-air batteries 10 times performance of lithium-ion batteries. Pulls oxygen from air for its charge. A decade away from commercialisation.

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