Disaster Medicine

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Focus on threats to human health in disasters and complex emergencies, as well as in general in developing countries.

See also Humanitarian Action and Development Policy.

Contents

General

http://www.eurekalert.org/context.php?context=disease Portal on disease in the developing world. News, research, glossary and links sections ; http://www.cdc.gov/ Center for Disease Control and Prevention with http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/EID/index.htm Emerging infectious diseases Journal ;

http://www.who.int/en/ are more and more involved in disaster management in health sector in recent decade, cf. http://www.who.int/neglected_diseases/diseases/en/ 14 neglected tropical diseases , http://www.who.int/hac/en/ WHO Health Action in Crises which offers support in natural and complex emergencies ; http://www.who.int/csr/en/ WHO Global Alert and Response capacity Communicable diseases ; cf. also http://www.who.int/topics/immunization/en/ Immunisation and WHO Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) Immunisation against polio, measles, neonatal tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis (whooping cough), tuberculosis, hepatitis B and yellow fever. http://new.paho.org/disasters/ WHO Pan-American Health Organisation, Emergency Preparedness and Disaster Relief

Communicable diseases

Cholera Acute intestinal infection caused by ingestion of food or water contaminated with the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. In epidemics contamination often occurs through feces. It has a short incubation period, from less than one day to five days, and produces an enterotoxin that causes a copious, painless, watery diarrhoea that can quickly lead to severe dehydration and death if treatment is not promptly given. Vomiting also occurs in most patients. "Boil it, cook it, peel it, or forget it. "

Diarrhoea http://www.who.int/topics/diarrhoea/en/ Portal site. WHO 21 June 2006 Between 21 April and 18 June 2006, the Federal Ministry of Health (FMoH) has reported a total of 2007 cases, including 77 deaths (case fatality rate, CFR=3.8%) of acute watery diarrhoea in 9 out of 15 states in northern Sudan. Of these cases 35.3% (CFR=4.9%) have occurred in Khartoum state, while 26% have occurred in North Kordofan state. The remaining cases have occurred in White Nile, South Darfur, South Kordofan, Kassala, Red Sea, Al Gezira and River Nile. The overall CFR during this period is 3.8%. The National Public Health Laboratory of the FMoH has confirmed the isolation of Vibrio cholerae 01 Inaba in 70 out of 139 stool samples (50%) collected so far from these states. The FMoH has formed a task force, including UNICEF and WHO to coordinate the overall response to the epidemic. WHO is also supplying diarrhoeal disease kits as well as laboratory supplies for the collection of samples and enteric disease bacteriology kits for establishing field laboratories to increase laboratory surveillance capacities in several affected states. Between 28 January and 14 June 2006, a total of 16 187 cases, including 476 deaths (CFR=3%) of acute watery diarrhoea has been reported in 8 out of 10 states in southern Sudan (see previous report). Vibrio cholerae 01 Inaba has been laboratory confirmed in several stool samples by African Medical and Research Foundation (AMREF) laboratories in Nairobi. A task force under the Ministry of Health of the Government of Southern Sudan (MOH/GoSS), including the FMoH, WHO, other UN and non-governmental partners has been established to coordinate the overall public health response. Several control measures are being implemented to contain the outbreak: *strengthenign surveillance and reporting system *standardising case management *promoting health education and hygiene *chlorination of public water supplies

Acute haemorrhagic Syndrome

Hepatitis

Malaria http://www.wikieducator.org/Malaria Course on malaria. ; 400-500 catch malaria yearly, but only 80 million each year get treatment. Det finns olika typer av malariaparasiter i olika delar av världen. Därför skiljer behandlingen sig något mellan Asien och Afrika. Till exempel används två olika tilläggsämnen till huvudpreparatet artemesinin. I Asien används mestadels meflokin, medan modiakin används i Afrika. De nya tabletterna där de två ämnena är kombinerade finns än så länge bara för Afrikavarianten. Det är redan tidigare känt att malariaparasiter har utvecklat resistens mot preparaten klorokin och fansidar. Även om det finns nya, effektivare mediciner på marknaden har det varit en seg och utdragen process att byta. Priset för de nya preparaten har varit för högt. Även om det bara rör sig om 10-20 kronor mer per patient gör det en enormt stor skillnad eftersom mängden malariasmittade i fattiga länder är mycket stor, säger PehrOlov Pehrson. Läkare utan gränser har hittills valt att använda ett billigare alternativ till klorokin. Det är den kinesiska örten artemesin, som i läkemedelsform heter artesunat, som kombineras med ett ämne som heter amodiakin. –Genom att kombinera de två motverkas malariaparasiternas förmåga att bygga upp en resistens mot läkemedlen.Problemet har varit att de två ämnena har varit förpackade som två separata tabletter vilket har försvårat behandlingen. Vissa patienter har inte fullföljt behandlingen eller har bara tagit en av tabletterna. –Med den nya medicinen är det lättare att fullfölja behandlingen på rätt sätt och dessutom är den billigare än motsvarande preparat som finns på marknaden, säger PehrOlov Pehrson. Den nya behandlingen har utvecklats inom ramen för DNDi, ett icke vinstdrivande samarbete mellan olika forskningsorganisationer. Tillsammans med läkare utan gränser jobbar de för att få läkemedelsföretag att även bry sig om sjukdomar som är typiska för fattiga länder. Företaget sanofi-aventis, som har tagit fram preparatet, har lämnat ifrån sig patenträtten för läkemedlet och säger sig sälja det till självkostnadspris.

Avian influenza http://www.who.int/csr/disease/avian_influenza/en/ Grippe aviaire Buruli ulcer http://www.who.int/gtb-buruli Ulcère de Buruli Cholera http://www.who.int/cholera/ Choléra Dengue (DengueNet) http://who.int/denguenet Dengue (DengueNet) Filariasis http://www.filariasis.org Filariose Influenza http://www.who.int/csr/disease/influenza/en/ Grippe Influenza network (FluNet) http://who.int/flunet Réseau grippe (FluNet) Intestinal parasites http://www.who.int/wormcontrol/ Parasites intestinaux Leishmaniasis http://www.who.int/leishmaniasis Leishmaniose Leprosy http://www.who.int/lep/ Lèpre Lymphatic filariasis http://www.who.int/lymphatic_filariasis/en/ Filiariose lymphatique Malaria http://www.who.int/malaria Paludisme Poliomyelitis http://www.polioeradication.org/casecount.asp Poliomyélite Rabies network (RABNET) http://www.who.int/rabies Réseau rage (RABNET) Salmonella surveillance network http://www.who.int/salmsurv Réseau de surveillance de la salmonellose Smallpox http://www.who.int/csr/disease/smallpox/ Variole Schistosomiasis http://www.schisto.org Schistosomiase Tuberculosis http://www.who.int/tb/ and/et http://www.stoptb.org Tuberculose Yellow fever http://www.who.int/csr/disease/yellowfev/en/ Fièvre jaune

Child and adolescent health and development http://www.who.int/child_adolescent_health/en/ Santé et développement des enfants et des adolescents Deliberate use of biological and chemical agents http://www.who.int/csr/delibepidemics/ Usage délibéré d’agents chimiques et biologiques Geographical information systems (GIS) http://www.who.int/csr/mapping/ Systèmes d’information géographique Global atlas of infectious diseases http://globalatlas.who.int Atlas mondial des maladies infectieuses Global Outbreak Alert and Response http://www.who.int/csr/outbreaknetwork/en/ Réseau mondial d’alerte et d’action en cas Network (GOARN) d’épidémie (GOARN) Health topics http://www.who.int/topics La santé de A à Z International Health Regulations http://www.who.int/csr/ihr/en/ Règlement sanitaire international International travel and health http://www.who.int/ith/ Voyages internationaux et santé Neglected tropical diseases http://www.who.int/neglected_diseases/en/ Maladies tropicales négligées Outbreak news http://www.who.int/csr/don Flambées d’épidémies Report on infectious diseases http://www.who.int/infectious-disease-report/ Rapport sur les maladies infectieuses Tropical disease research http://www.who.int/tdr/ Recherche sur les maladies tropicales Vaccines http://www.who.int/immunization/en/ Vaccins Weekly Epidemiological Record http://www.who.int/wer/ Relevé épidémiologique hebdomadaire WHO Lyon Office for National Epidemic Preparedness and Response http://www.who.int/csr/ihr/lyon/en/index.html Bureau OMS de Lyon pour la préparation et la réponse des pays aux épidémies WHO Pesticide Evaluation Scheme (WHOPES) http://www.who.int/whopes Schéma OMS d’évaluation des pesticides (WHOPES) WHO Mediterranean Centre for Vulnerability Reduction, Tunis http://wmc.who.int/ Centre Méditerranéen de l’OMS pour la Réduction de la Vulnérabilité à Tunis (WMC) Epidemic and pandemic surveillance and response http://www.who.int/csr/en/ Alerte et action en cas d’épidémie et de pandémie Eradication/elimination programmes http://www.who.int/infectious-disease-news/ Programmes d’éradication/élimination

Global Alert diseases

- Anthrax - Avian influenza - Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) - Dengue/dengue haemorrhagic fever - Ebola haemorrhagic fever - Hendra Virus (HeV) Infection - Hepatitis - Influenza - Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 - Lassa fever - Marburg haemorrhagic fever - Meningococcal disease - Nipah Virus (NiV) Infection - Plague - Rift Valley fever - Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) - Smallpox - Tularaemia - Yellow fever


Neglected Tropical Diseases

Buruli Ulcer
Chagas disease(American trypanosomiasis)
Dengue/dengue haemorrhagic fever
Dracunculiasis (guinea-worm disease)
Fascioliasis
Human African trypanosomiasis
Leishmaniasis
Leprosy
Lymphatic filariasis
Onchocerciasis
Schistosomiasis
Soil transmitted helminthiasis
Snakebite
Trachoma
Yaws

Other Health threats in Disaster areas

Iodine Deficiency disorder http://indorgs.virginia.edu/iccidd/aboutidd.htm ; http://www.iccidd.org/ INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL FOR THE CONTROL OF IODINE DEFICIENCY DISORDERS ;

Thyroid disease http://www.thyroidmanager.org/ An excellent full-length book online.

Fistula Fistula campaigns are needed to get women to the hospitals. It is associated with shame.

Micronutrients http://www.micronutrient.org/home.asp On aspect of micronutrients

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