Malcolm Gladwell asks what makes a university great, and also providing an answer: "To constantly surprise the students, to have an engineered capacity for surprise, a good university deliberately sets their students through situations during the course of the day where they are surprised by something new, weird, challenging." Unfortunately, modern university environments, where teaching becomes a necessary evil for academics intent on fulfilling their research and publication obligations, have in many places become an anti-thesis to this.
Relevant therefore is to look into how social processes outside universities and the institutionalised educational establishment can contribute to education in a society. Non-affiliated and independent scholars can arguably offer more free thinking and paradigm-shifting ideas than conformist peers. They can also help with the breaking-down of barriers between a self-consciously proud 'academia' and what disparagingly can be called 'the general public.' There is enough of chatter going on in journals and on conferences between academics, and way to little of dialogue between academics and everyone else.
Broadly speaking, Education Studies should be concerned with issues such as
- Philosophy of knowledge (Epistemology) - what is the nature of knowledge
- Sociology of Knowledge - how is knowledge constituted and determined.
- Scientific Research Methods - particular focus on what methods and in what environments knowledge is produced, but also developments in research methods. How do we ask research questions? Quantitative vs. qualitative methods. Gap-spotting or true problematisation.
- Educational method - Teaching methodology, pedagogy etc.
- Information Sciences - particularly what constitutes information (human information) and how to store it (especially information that cannot be digitised. Also relevant is Science and Technology Studies.
- Education and society - impact on class relations, social engineering, social mobility, stratification.
Education and development, education and class, Institutional requirements vs independent scholarship, social construction of knowledge
|Herbert Gintis|| Together with Bowles : Schooling in Capitalist America (1976) was perhaps the most important text in this regard. For Bowles
and Gintis, schools had a key functional role in the reproduction of capitalism, preparing young people to take their places in a differentiated class hierarchy. Schools operated on what they called a “correspondence principle”
|Paul Willis||Learning to Labor outlines the 'culture of resistance' of young working-class school boys in industrial town.|
Education & Development Policies
- http://www.unitar.org/ UN Training centre
“If you think education is expensive, try ignorance.”
Focus on access, but also quality as quality in LDCs has been poor. Providing incentives to learn, merit scholarships.
- Duflo, Esther (2001) "Schooling and Labor Market Consequences of School Construction in Indonesia: Evidence from and Unusual Policy Experiment" American Economic Review 91(4). Between 1973 and 1978, the Indonesian governmentengaged in one of the largest school constructionprograms on record. Combiningdifferences across regions in the numberof schools constructedwith differences across cohorts induced by the timing of the program suggests that each primary school constructedper 1,000 children led to an average increase of 0.12 to 0.19 years of education, as well as a 1.5 to 2.7 percent increase in wages. This implies estimates of economic returns to education rangingfrom 6.8 to 10.6 percent.
- Global Goodness http://www.ggoodness.com/ Literacy ;
Education & Early Recovery & Humanitarian Action
"Educate a boy and you educate an individual; educate a girl and you educate a community." Women involvement in peace negotiations better the agreements, their involvement in implementation ensures sustainability. Fundamental aspect.
- UNDP 8 point agenda http://www.undp.org/cpr/we_do/8_pa.shtml Excellent focus on women and early recovery.
Role of Scientific Communities e.g. Assessments of natural hazards grounded in local science. Measures for preparedness, technical expertise.
Think tanks represent an important subset of the institutions that make up civil society. Their existence contributes to the creation of a robust civil society. In turn, the presence of a robust civil society strengthens the existence of think tanks, creating a ‘virtuous cycle’ of consolidation. The potential of think tanks to support and sustain civil societies around the world is far from exhausted.
- Zama Coursen-Neff and Saman Zia-Zarifi, http://www.hrw.org/en/reports/2006/07/10/lessons-terror Lessons in Terror: Attacks on Education in Afghanistan</a>, Human Rights Watch, July 10, 2006.
- Frances Ellery and Katie Webley, http://www.reliefweb.int/rw/RWFiles2010.nsf/FilesByRWDocUnidFilename/ADGO-85CQM2-full_report.pdf/$File/full_report.pdf The Future is Now: Education for Children in Countries Affected by Conflict</a>, Save the Children, 2010.
- Marit Glad, http://www.reliefweb.int/rw/RWFiles2009.nsf/FilesByRWDocUnidFilename/MUMA-7XZ49J-full_report.pdf/$File/full_report.pdf Knowledge on Fire: Attacks on education in Afghanistan - Risks and measures for successful mitigation</a>, CARE, September 2009.
- Human Rights Watch, http://www.hrw.org/en/news/2009/04/20/taking-next-step Taking the Next Step: Strengthening the Security Council’s Response to Sexual Violence and Attacks on Education in Armed Conflict, April 2009.
- Inter-Agency Network for Education in Emergencies, http://www.reliefweb.int/rw/lib.nsf/db900sid/OCHA-7TGQUA/$file/inee_gc_2009_report_final.pdf?openelement Bridging the Gaps: Risk Reduction, Relief and Recovery , March 31-April 2, 2009.
- Brendan O'Malley, http://web.archive.org/web/20071112000954/http:/www.unesco.org/education/attack/educationunderattack.pdf Education under attack: A global study on targeted political and military violence against education staff, students, teachers, union and government officials, and institutions, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), 2007. Worldwide noticable increase in targeted attacks on education staff, students and institutions for political or ideological aims. Sometimes perception that education is not neutral, or that an alien culture, language or religion is imposed on children. Application on Human Rights instruments to children (traditionally only in the context of child soldiers) can be broadened to embed teachers and academics. Education must be ensured to be perceived as neutral. Promotion of inclusive education, and acceptance of schools as sanctuaries of peace. Promotion of inter-cultural, inter-religious dialogue. Curricula for mutual understanding, appreciation for common and diverse heritage, conflict resolution. Develop mechanisms to protect threatened students. support continuation of education in alternative places.
- Brendan O'Malley et al., http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0018/001867/186732e.pdf Protecting Education from Attack: A State of the Art Review, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), 2010.
- HL Paanakker, http://www.iraqsolidaridad.org/2009/docs/Higher_Education_Summary.pdf Higher Education in Iraq Under Attack</a>, University of Amsterdam, September 2009.
- Susan Nicolai, http://www.iiep.unesco.org/fileadmin/user_upload/Info_Services_Publications/pdf/2009/Nicolai_Opportunities_for_change.pdf Opportunities for Change: Education innovation and reform during and after conflict, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization and International Institute for Educational Planning, 2009.
- Save the Children, http://www.savethechildren.org.uk/en/docs/Attacks_on_schools_brief_final_%282%29.pdf Rewrite the future: Preventing Attacks on Schools, 2009.
- Bede Sheppard, http://www.hrw.org/en/reports/2009/12/09/sabotaged-schooling-0 Sabotaged Schooling: Naxalite Attacks and Police Occupation of Schools in India's Bihar and Jharkhand States, Human Rights Watch, December 9, 2009.
- Rebecca Winthrop et al., http://www.brookings.edu/~/media/Files/events/2010/0517_violence_in_education/20100517_violence_in_education.pdf Education under Attack: Violence against Students, Teachers and Schools in Armed Conflicts, Transcript of Brookings Institution event, Washington D.C., May 17, 2009.