Geologic Sciences

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Disciplines concerned with the physical-chemical makeup of the solid Earth, which include the study of minerals (mineralogy), the three main groups of rocks (igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic petrology), the chemistry of rocks (geochemistry), the structures in rocks (structural geology), and the physical properties of rocks at the Earth’s surface and in its interior (geophysics). The study of landforms (geomorphology), which is concerned with the description of the features of the present terrestrial surface and an analysis of the processes that gave rise to them. Disciplines concerned with the geologic history of the Earth, including the study of fossils and the fossil record (paleontology), the development of sedimentary strata deposited typically over millions of years (stratigraphy), and the isotopic chemistry and age dating of rocks (geochronology). The study of the rock record on the Moon and the planets and their satellites (astrogeology). This field includes the investigation of relevant terrestrial features—namely, tektites (glassy objects resulting from meteorite impacts) and astroblemes (meteorite craters).


Mineraology, Petrology, Geomorphology, Palaeontology.

Web ; French Geological Survey ; ; ;



Scientific study of rocks that deals with their composition, texture, and structure; their occurrence and distribution; and their origin in relation to physicochemical conditions and geologic processes. It is concerned with all three major types of rocks—igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary. Petrology includes the subdisciplines of experimental petrology and petrography. Experimental petrology involves the laboratory synthesis of rocks for the purpose of ascertaining the physical and chemical conditions under which rock formation occurs. Petrography is the study of rocks in thin section by means of a petrographic microscope (i.e., an instrument that employs polarized light that vibrates in a single plane). Petrography is primarily concerned with the systematic classification and precise description of rocks.

Igneous rocks Granite is a felsic intrusive igneous rock. Most igneous rocks consist of quartz, feldspars, pyroxenes, amphiboles, micas, olivines, nepheline, leucite, and apatite.

Paleontology Article in PLoS ONE describing the find of Ida, or Darwinius masillae, the fossil in the Messel Pit near Darmstadt, Germany that provides a link between apes and lemurs, and thus can be a 47 mya human ancestor.

Geochronology Timeline ;

Astro-Geology Ureilite ;

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