Knowledge Classification

From Coddeau

Jump to: navigation, search




Aristotle Theoretical sciences come before the practical ones and philosophy before the theoretical sciences...

Francis Bacon A turning point came with Francis Bacon's plan for his uncompleted Instauratio magna (“Great Instauration”; 1620) in which he eschewed the endless controversies in favour of a three-section structure, including “External Nature” (covering such topics as astronomy, meteorology, geography, and species of minerals, vegetables, and animals), “Man” (covering anatomy, physiology, structure and powers, and actions), and “Man's Action on Nature” (including medicine, chemistry, the visual arts, the senses, the emotions, the intellectual faculties, architecture, transport, printing, agriculture, navigation, arithmetic, and numerous other subjects).

Coleridge Coleridge, who was very much impressed by Bacon's scheme, in 1817 drew up a rather different table of arrangement for the Encyclopædia Metropolitana. It comprised five main classes: Pure Sciences—Formal (philology, logic, mathematics) and Real (metaphysics, morals, theology); Mixed and Applied Sciences—Mixed (mechanics, hydrostatics, pneumatics, optics, astronomy) and Applied (experimental philosophy, the fine arts, the useful arts, natural history, application of natural history); Biographical and Historical, chronologically arranged; Miscellaneous and Lexicographical, a gazetteer, and a philosophical and etymological lexicon. The fifth class was to be an analytical index.

From earliest times it had been held that the trivium (grammar, logic, rhetoric) and the quadrivium (geometry, arithmetic, astronomy, music) were essential ingredients in any encyclopaedia. Even as late as 1435 Alfonso de la Torre began his Visiõ delectable in almost that exact order, and only when he had laid these foundations did he proceed to the problems of science, philosophy, theology, law, and politics. Thus the seven liberal arts were regarded by the early encyclopaedists as the very mathematics of human knowledge, without a knowledge of which it would be foolish to proceed.

Some examples of modern classifications

Roget's Thesaurus

Roget's Thesaurus

JACS Subject Coding System - Subject Groups Excellent British List.

French Universalis classification

Other classifications ; ; ;

Zättelkasten, notably by Nilkas Luhmann German sociologist ; Great attempt at index with info online ;

Personal tools