Sociology, Sociological Theory, Philosophy of Science, Philosophy of Social Sciences, Epistemology, Futurology, Social Anthropology, Formal Logic, Social Psychology, Teaching, Philology (concerned with historical developments of languages), Philosophy of Language (concerned with conceptual rather than empirical investigations), Semiotics (concerned with broader cultural sign processes (not only languages)), Cognitive Sciences, Linguistic Anthropology, Communication Studies, Hermeneutics.
Linguistics can be said to be a social science. “Sociology would certainly have progressed much further if it had everywhere followed the lead of the linguists. ...” (Marcel Mauss). If anything, the scientific rigour acquired in linguistics is further than in other social sciences. Linguistics and Social Anthropology are also close cousins. Linear theory and kinship studies have cross-pollinated with linguistics.
Contemporary linguistic fields: Phonology, Morphology, Syntax (studies the internal structure of language. Syntax cares about when a string of words is a grammatical sentence, but it doesn’t care at all what the sentence means. There are two parts to syntax, phonetics, which examines how words are built up out of simple sounds, and grammar, which looks at how sentences are built up out of words), Semantics (study of meaning, looks outside the internal structure of language to ask what the sentences mean. It looks at the connections between the expressions of a language and the things or states of affairs that those expressions are about. It asks what an expression refers to and what would make a sentence true.), Pragmatics (Semantics still leaves people out of the picture. It asks what object a word refers to, without taking account of the people who use the word to refer to the object. To discuss the relation between language, the community of people who use the language, and the things they use the language to talk about is the province of pragmatics. Pragmatics pays particular attention to words like “this,” “that,” “here,” and “now,” which refer to different things on different occasions."), Sociolinguistics, Discourse Analysis.
Applied Linguistics, Computational Linguistics and Natural Language Processing, Educational Linguistics, Foundations of Linguistics, Historical and Comparative Linguistics, History of Linguistics
Animal Communication, Biographies, Brain and Language, Countries and Languages, Language Acquisition (and loss), Languages of the World (historical manifestations, language history, variation, documentation).
Law and Language, Lexicography, Linguistic Anthropology, Media and Language, Medicine and Language, Philosophy and Language, Politics and Language, Psycholinguistics, Religion and Language, Variation and Language.
Semiotics, Sign Language, Speech Technology, Spoken Discourse, Text Analysis and Stylistics, Translation, Typology and Universals, Writing Systems.
- shibboleth, that is, an affirmation that marks the speaker as a member of their community or tribe. (The original shibboleth was a password chosen by the Gileadites because their Ephraimite enemies could not say “Sh”.)
- Charles Sanders Peirce - philosophical Pragmatism.
- Jakob von Uexküll - studied the sign processes in animals. ; the concept of Umwelt (subjective world or environment, lit. "world around") and functional circle (Funktionskreis) as a general model of sign processes. In his Theory of Meaning (Bedeutungslehre, 1940), he described the semiotic approach to biology, thus establishing the field that is now called biosemiotics. Influenced Felix Guattari.
- Structural Linguistics or behaviourist structuralism - separation of linguistics from psychology, language analysed solely as sequences of regularised sounds.
- John Searle Speech Acts
- Austin. 1962. How to do things with words. Speech acts.
- Valentin Voloshinov ; 'materialist' semiologist. consciousness can only come about by means of some kind of semiotic material. 'reality reflected in signs is not merely reflected but refracted' - i.e. all signs are subject to ideological evaluation ch'r by 'multi-accentuality of the sign shaped by class struggle. Humphrey critique: the refraction of existence cannot wholly be linked to social interests. (Humphrey 1989 in Grillo 1989:146). two ways of thinking about language: "individualistic subjectivism" and "abstract objectivism". Voloshinov thinks the first to be flawed and dangerous.
- Noam Chomsky - drew from Bloomfield and Harris ; langue-parole distinction refashioned into a competence-performance one ; combined mentalistic basis for language with formal linguistics bridging the Saussurian contradiction ; a model of the linguistic agent is missing in Saussure ; Chomsky focus on agentive competence remedies this ; but Chomsky critiqued by Bourdieu.
- Pierre Bourdieu - 'practical competence' situated in context must complement Chomsky's idea of agentive competence. B draws from Austin's Speech act, but expands it - people inhabit linguistic habitus.
- The Prague School - main influence on Levi-Strauss ; social conception of Saussure's 'langue' rather than psychological ; focus on language as a communicative medium ; langue expressing relations of meaning ;
- Roman Jakobson - analysing phonemes in terms of oppositions that are constitutive of language as a whole ; influenced Levi-Strauss ;
- Claude Levi-Strauss http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/fr/levistra.htm Claude Lévi-Strauss (1958), Structural Anthropology, Structural Analysis in Linguistics and in Anthropology.
- Outhwaite - linguistic analysis suggests various ways of looking at human behaviour. Motives are to be distinguished from "causes", as motives are conceptually and logically related to the action of which they are motives.
- Peter Winch - suggests a linguistic analysis which turn behaviourism "on its head". Behaviourism reduces speech actions to behaviour. Winch instead argues that behaviour is subsumed under speech, a contention built on the premise that human actions are only intersubjetively identifiable, that is only through conceptualisation in a public language do actions exist. There is a hint of this in Wittgenstein's insight that that the distinction between humans and animals is that humans can talk about what they do. See also verstehen.
- Giddens, Social Theory and Modern Sociology - bits on Saussure.