Linguistics

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Contents

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Nexus

Sociology, Sociological Theory, Philosophy of Science, Philosophy of Social Sciences, Epistemology, Futurology, Social Anthropology, Formal Logic, Social Psychology, Teaching, Philology (concerned with historical developments of languages), Philosophy of Language (concerned with conceptual rather than empirical investigations), Semiotics (concerned with broader cultural sign processes (not only languages)), Cognitive Sciences, Linguistic Anthropology, Communication Studies, Hermeneutics.

Scope

Linguistics can be said to be a social science. “Sociology would certainly have progressed much further if it had everywhere followed the lead of the linguists. ...” (Marcel Mauss). If anything, the scientific rigour acquired in linguistics is further than in other social sciences. Linguistics and Social Anthropology are also close cousins. Linear theory and kinship studies have cross-pollinated with linguistics.

Contemporary linguistic fields: Phonology, Morphology, Syntax (studies the internal structure of language. Syntax cares about when a string of words is a grammatical sentence, but it doesn’t care at all what the sentence means. There are two parts to syntax, phonetics, which examines how words are built up out of simple sounds, and grammar, which looks at how sentences are built up out of words), Semantics (study of meaning, looks outside the internal structure of language to ask what the sentences mean. It looks at the connections between the expressions of a language and the things or states of affairs that those expressions are about. It asks what an expression refers to and what would make a sentence true.), Pragmatics (Semantics still leaves people out of the picture. It asks what object a word refers to, without taking account of the people who use the word to refer to the object. To discuss the relation between language, the community of people who use the language, and the things they use the language to talk about is the province of pragmatics. Pragmatics pays particular attention to words like “this,” “that,” “here,” and “now,” which refer to different things on different occasions."), Sociolinguistics, Discourse Analysis.

Notions

Applied Linguistics, Computational Linguistics and Natural Language Processing, Educational Linguistics, Foundations of Linguistics, Historical and Comparative Linguistics, History of Linguistics

Animal Communication, Biographies, Brain and Language, Countries and Languages, Language Acquisition (and loss), Languages of the World (historical manifestations, language history, variation, documentation).

Law and Language, Lexicography, Linguistic Anthropology, Media and Language, Medicine and Language, Philosophy and Language, Politics and Language, Psycholinguistics, Religion and Language, Variation and Language.

Semiotics, Sign Language, Speech Technology, Spoken Discourse, Text Analysis and Stylistics, Translation, Typology and Universals, Writing Systems.

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