Aristotle considered Philosophy as the first science. With time various subject matters cropped off to form own Sciences. E.g. Aristotle's Natural Philosophy became Physical Sciences, Question of space and time now belong to Cosmology, the study of mind have recently moved into a branch of Psychology. Linguistics, and Microeconomics have also made the break in the 20th Century. Logic, seems to make the transition to its own Science or part of Mathematics. Philosophy is "the primordial ooze from which the sciences emerge."
Kolakowsky once suggested that it was arguably not worth reading the works of a philosopher who never suspected himself of being a charlatan.
- Janushead http://www.janushead.org/ Continental Philosophy, Literature, Phenomenology, Arts
- Episteme Links http://www.epistemelinks.com/ Useful
- Galileo Library Philosophy Pages http://www.galilean-library.org/philosophy.php online meeting place and depth of articles.
- Guardian Series on philosophers http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/series/how-to-believe Guardian series on philosophers, esp. Nietzsche ;
- Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy http://www.iep.utm.edu/ Peer reviewed encyclopedia. Very useful.
- London University Philosophy Guide http://www.ucl.ac.uk/philosophy/LPSG/contents.htm Useful
- Marxist Internet Archive http://www.marxists.org/reference/ and http://www.marxists.org/archive/index.htm Excellent archives on intellectual history
- Paideia Archive http://www.bu.edu/wcp/PaidArch.html Philosophy papers ;
- Philosopy pages http://www.philosophypages.com/dy/ Index of names and terms ;
- http://classiques.uqac.ca/classiques/ Excellentes fiches sur les auteurs et penseurs classiques ;
- Philosopher's Digest http://www.philosophersdigest.com/ Digest of major philosophy journals ;
- Philsopher's Index http://philindex.org/ paid but comprehensive service ;
- Philosophy Professor http://www.philosophyprofessor.com/
- La philosophie http://www.laphilosophie.fr/ full text books
- Philpapers http://philpapers.org/ Repostiory of online research papers plus blog and community ;
- Squashed philosophers http://www.btinternet.com/~glynhughes/squashed/ ;
- Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy http://plato.stanford.edu/ Excellent ;
- University of Virginia http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/DicHist/analytic/anaVI.html Dictionary on the history of ideas, full text.
- Peter King : Philosophy Around the Web http://users.ox.ac.uk/~worc0337/phil_index.html
- Peter Suber : Guide to Philosophy on the net http://www.earlham.edu/~peters/philinks.htm
- Roger Jones http://www.philosopher.org.uk/ Since the Enlightenment ;
- Thomas Wallenmaier http://www.philosophyclass.com/ Very basic introduction.
Neighbouring fields include Linguistics and Cognitive Sciences, and arguably Philosophy of Science should be put on the side. There is overlap with other fields such as Classical Studies, Oriental and African Studies, Psychology, Religious Studies, Sociology (e.g. Critical Theory). Applied ethics is not included here (e.g.: business ethics, medical ethics, etc.)
Logic, Science, Mathematics
- Formal Logic, Applied Logic, Philosophy of Logic, Also Mathematical Logic in Philosophy of Mathematics.
- Philosophy of Science; Philosophy of natural sciences
- Philosophy of Mathematics. Also Mathematics.
- Philosophical Logic and Metaphysics (especially necessity, truth, realism, essence, identity, existence)
- Epistemology & Methodology (also Agnoiology); Hermeneutics
- Philosophy of Mind & Cognitive Sciences (Philosophy of cognitive science, Cognitive Psychology, Artificial Intelligence, Neuroscience)
- Philosophy of Religion ;
- Philosophy of Language ; Philosophy of communication
Value theories, Axiology
Further Particular branches of philosophical inquiry
- Philosophy of Education ;
- Philosophy of History
- Philosophy of Nature
- Philosophy of Biology and Biophilosophy
- Philosophical Anthropology
- Philosophy of Psychology
- Philosophy of Technology
- Social Philosophy,
- Philosophy and environment,
- Philosophy of Culture
- Sociology of Philosophy (Who counts as philosophers?)
- American Philosophy
- Continental Philosophy
- Feminist Philosophy (Socialist Philosophy) http://www.radicalphilosophy.com/
- Islam: Islamic philosophy;
- Buddhism; Confucianism;
- Indian philosophy
- African Philosophy
- Analytic Philosophy
- Cartesianism Descartes' Cartesian mechanism -explaining nature in mechanistic terms, without recourse to Aristotelian notions of "form" or "final cause". Duality mind and body, and God's existence outside this duality, and capabable of joining the two in "man." A man which has "free will" to move its body (thus outside of mechanistic determinism). God as the cause of nature/matter and the laws of nature, but all events results of "secondary causes" - i.e. the collision and movement of matter.
- Empiricism - contrasted with Rationalism
- Phenomenology - 20th century movement. Topics : the nature of intentionality, perception, time-consciousness, self-consciousness, awareness of the body and consciousness of others. Elements found already in David Hume, Immanuel Kant and Franz Brentano, but as a movement began with Edmund Husserl, and adapted, broadened and extended by, amongst others, Martin Heidegger, Jean-Paul Sartre, Maurice Merleau-Ponty, Emmanuel Levinas and Jacques Derrida.
- Philosophy of Praxis
- Philosophy of Values
- Philosophy of Life
- Positivism - Auguste Comte. Often associated with realism. Assumptions : 1. phenomena counts only if verified by the senses, i.e. phenomenalism. 2. theories generate hypotheses that can be tested. i.e. deductivism. 3. knowledge can be used by collecting facts that provide the basis for laws i.e. inductivism. 4. science can and must be conducted in a way that is value-free and neutral. 5. clear distinction between scientific and normative statements.
- Practical Philosophy
- Pragmatism - La forme américaine du pragmatisme, fondée et développée par Charles Pierce, William James, John Dewey, George Herbert Mead, prend ces racines dans la méthodologie des sciences naturelles. Elle mène à ce que chaque découverte soit mesurée à l'aune de son utilité, de son "succès" dans la réalité extérieure. The meaning of concepts can be found in their practical use.
- Rationalism; - knowledge springs from faculties of reasoning, not experience. Phenomena have natural causes (not e.g. divine), morality appeals to conscience (not again to external divine authority). Rationalism has tendency to generalise, abstract, unify the disparate, and to create a corpus of systematic knowledge through scientific method and universal intelligible laws, which should be able to answer all questions. (Spinoza, Descartes, Leibniz but also perhaps Functionalism are major proponents. Major critique by e.g. Herder's particularism, nationalism and literary religious and political irrationalism.)
- Scholasticism - based on Arestotlian thinking of essence, soul, form (even alchemic ideas of substances) inherent in all things guiding their development towards their goal or meaning.
- Constructivism. Contrasted to positivism. Not unified programme, but developing in parallel in psychology, sociology, philosophy, neurobiology, psychiatry, and information science. Every form of knowledge is constructed by selection and structuring. Glasersfeld (1992: 30) "knowledge is related to the way in which we organise our experiential world." It does not deny an external reality, but emphasises that experiences are structured and understood through concepts and contexts. "Radical constructivism adopts Vico's fundamental idea that human knowledge is a human construct."
- Occasionalism - Malebranche - explained the mediation between mind and body (accepted Cartesian dualism) by an intervention/mediation by god on each occasion.
History of Philosophy
- Ancient Philosophy (Greek but also Arab)
- Post-Aristotelian Philosophy
- Medieval Philosophy
- 19th Century German Philosophy
- Modern Philosophy
- Contemporary Philosophy
- Thales, Anaximander, Xenophanes, Heraclitus
- Berkeley - phenomenalism - bodies do not exist but as ideas.